Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month of pregnancy, often before a woman even knows that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, the fetal spinal column doesn't close completely. There is usually nerve damage that causes at least some paralysis of the legs. In anencephaly, most of the brain and skull do not develop. Babies with anencephaly are either stillborn or die shortly after birth. Another type of defect, Chiari malformation, causes the brain tissue to extend into the spinal canal.
The exact causes of neural tube defects aren't known. You're at greater risk of having an infant with a neural tube defect if you
Getting enough folic acid, a type of B vitamin, before and during pregnancy prevents most neural tube defects.
Neural tube defects are usually diagnosed before the infant is born, through lab or imaging tests. There is no cure for neural tube defects. The nerve damage and loss of function that are present at birth are usually permanent. However, a variety of treatments can sometimes prevent further damage and help with complications.
NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development